Depression: A Treatable Illness
Types of Depression
Depression comes in different forms, just as is the case with other illnesses such as heart disease. The three main depressive disorders are: major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder.
Major depression (or major depressive disorder) is manifested by a combination of symptoms (see symptom list below) that interfere with the ability to work, study, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities. A major depressive episode may occur only once, but it is more common for several episodes to occur in a lifetime. Chronic major depression may require a person to continue treatment indefinitely.
A less severe type of depression, dysthymia (or dysthymic disorder), involves long-lasting symptoms that do not seriously disable, but keep one from functioning well or feeling good. Many people with dysthymia also experience major depressive episodes during their lives.
Another type of depressive illness is bipolar disorder (or manic-depressive illness). Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes: severe highs (mania) and lows (depression), often with periods of normal mood in between. When in the depressed cycle, an individual can have any or all of the symptoms of depression. When in the manic cycle, the person may be overactive, over-talkative, and have a great deal of energy. Mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment. For example, an individual in a manic phase may feel elated and full of grand schemes that might range from unwise business decisions to romantic sprees.
Symptoms of Depression
Not everyone with a depressive disorder experiences every symptom. The number and severity of symptoms may vary among individuals and also over time. In addition, men and women may experience depression differently. Symptoms of depression include:
Some Facts About Depression
More than 80 percent of people with depressive disorders improve when they receive appropriate treatment. The first step to getting treatment is a physical examination by a physician to rule out other possible causes for the symptoms. Next, the physician should conduct a diagnostic evaluation for depression or refer the patient to a mental health professional for this evaluation.
Treatment choice will depend on the patient's diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and preference. A variety of treatments, including medications and short-term psychotherapies (i.e., "talking" therapies), have proven effective for depression. In general, severe depressive illnesses, particularly those that are recurrent, will require a combination of treatments for the best outcome. It usually takes a few weeks of treatment before the full therapeutic effect occurs. Once the person is feeling better, treatment may need to be continued for several months-and in some cases, indefinitely-to prevent a relapse.
For More Information on Depression
National Institute of Mental Health
NIH Publication No. 03-5299
Visit the NIMH website at http://www.nimh.nih.gov for information that supplements this publication.
NIMH publications are in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without the permission from the Institute (NIMH).
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